Test Case sc3.1.6_l3_004: Ambiguous word (homograph) with pronunciation information in simple Ruby annotation and with parentheses (XHTML 1.1)

Formal Metadata

Formal Metadata
TitleAmbiguous word (homograph) with pronunciation information in simple Ruby annotation and with parentheses (XHTML 1.1)
DescriptionA web page that contains a sentence where the meaning of the word “row” can be determined with the provided pronunciation information (provided with simple Ruby annotation with parentheses). In user agents that support Ruby (and XHTML 1.1), the pronunciation is displayed alongside the annotated word in a smaller font. In user agents that do not support Ruby, the pronunciation is displayed in parentheses.
CreatorBenToWeb (Christophe.Strobbe@…)
RightsCopyright BenToWeb 2005-2007
Statusaccepted by both validators

Technologies and Features

Technologies are markup languages or data formats. If the technology is a markup language, “features” refers to elements and attributes.

XHTML™ 1.1 - Module-based XHTML

XHTML™ 1.1 - Module-based XHTML

Ruby Annotation

Ruby Annotation

Test Data


This test case is intended to pass because pronunciation information is provided.

Expert Guidance

Check whether you can identify the meaning of the word “row” (without knowing the pronunciation).

Test Modes

Accessibility expert.

Test Files

Test file.


sc3.1.6_l3_004 (XML).


“Rules” refer to success criteria in WCAG 2.0, checkpoints in WCAG 1.0 and similar requirements.

Primary Rules

The test case passes (line 9, column 60) the following success criterion: http://www.w3.org/TR/2006/WD-WCAG20-20060427/guidelines.html#meaning-pronunciation.

Functional Outcome

The user can determine “row” here means “noisy argument, quarrel” and not “line, queue”.

Technical Comment

This test case maps to technique H62: Using the ruby element (http://www.w3.org/TR/2006/WD-WCAG20-TECHS-20060427/Overview.html#H62).

For more heteronyms see The Heteronym Page.

The example is inspired by http://archive.tivocommunity.com/tivo-vb/history/topic/51900-1.html. See also “row” in Webster's online dictionary.